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UV Irradiation Dosage Tables

Ultraviolet Light Germicidal Capabilities


A very important and useful attribute of UV rays at wavelengths of 250-280 nanometers (2500-2800 Angstroms Å)
is their ability to kill bacteria, viruses, molds and other pathogens.

The use of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for the sterilization of microorganisms has been studied since the 1930's. Microbes are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of light at wavelengths at or near 2537 Angstroms (253.7 nm) due to the resonance of this particular wavelength in disrupting molecular RNA structures.

 UV Germicidal Wavelength GraphMost of us are familiar with UV-A and UV-B rays, but the ultraviolet component of sunlight is the main reason microbes die in the outdoor air. The die-off rate in the outdoors varies from one pathogen to another with the same being true for pathogens in water supplies, but this can range from a few seconds to a couple of minutes for a 90-99% kill of viruses or contagious bacteria. For pathogens in water supplies, the UV intensity is much higher because the UV lamp is very close to the flowing water, the die-off rate ranges from fractions of a second to 3 or 4 seconds. The germicidal effects can also be species-dependent. Obviously, the exposure time is critical and depends on the velocity or flow rate of the water that has passed through the lamp. The water velocity is dependent upon water pressure (psi), with higher pressures yielding less UV exposure time which therefore may not achieve the desired pathogen kill-rate. The normal water pressure is 55 - 65 psi.

Bacteria are one-celled organisms. They exist in different forms and variations in the earth, in the water and in the air. Their average size varies from 0.2 and 1.5 microns - maximum 10 microns, and can not be distinguished by the human eye. Therefore one cubic centimeter of contaminated water can contain millions of microorganisms. Not every bacteria is an agent of disease. The most common waterborne bacteria which cause infections include: typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery, colibacillosis and cholera.

Viruses are the smallest agents of disease. Their size vary from 0.1 to 0.004 microns. Except for the large pocketvirus, these microorganisms will pass through the typical water filter. The most common virus are hepatitis, yellow fever, and poliomyelitis. Viruses tend to adhere to particles in the water which can be filtered out with a well designed and functioning Reverse Osmosis system, but can not offer complete protection. Our 13-stage Thunder 3000C Reverse Osmosis system has an adjunct UV-C light unit built in for total and complete water purification.

Protozoa are larger than bacteria, and are one-celled animals varying in size from 10 to 100 microns. They can survive in insects or in the form of cysts when outside of the human or animal organism. Some protozoa such as amoeba, giardia and cryptosporidium are present everywhere. Others, such as malaria or of the sleeping sickness disease can only be found in the tropics and subtropics.

It is the bacteria and virus situation in water supplies that often occur before it can be detected in order to provide adequate warning to the population.

Suspect water supplies left untreated by UV light sterilization is what causes most human illnesses quickly after ingestion, while Chlorine, Fluoride. heavy metals and other contaminants bio-accumulate in the body resulting in health problems years later. In the spring of 1993 there was a widespread outbreak of acute diarrhea among the residents of Milwaukee, Wisconsin from protozoa contaminated public water supplies. Another outbreak occurred in 1984 at Braun Station, Texas, in which more than 2,000 people were afflicted by waterborne cryptosporidiosis. The total cost of the Milwaukee outbreak-associated illness is estimated at $96.2 million, and FIFTY DEATHS were associated with the massive Milwaukee outbreak. A UV-C sterilization unit could save your life.


In spite of improved water distribution methods and stricter EPA standards, old and aging distribution infrastructure, along with treatment deficiencies and inadequacies are common place, which can result in spontaneous waterborne illness outbreaks. With UV sterilization units now readily available and cost effective for home use, it would be a wise decision to install a UV light irradiation unit for continuous protection and peace of mind.

A constant supply of pure, clean water is what creates a healthy environment for the body to be able to heal itself and to live longer. 

The viruses and bacteria listed in the below tables are the cause of most, if not any problem you can name, and they are mutating out of control!  Nonetheless, it is clearly demonstrated that UV-C light irradiation has a broad and powerful ability to completely control these organisms in your water supply.

The following tables provide the energy of germicidal ultraviolet radiation at 253.7 nanometers wavelength necessary to deactivate and destroy (99%) of the disease causing microorganisms that can be present in water supplies.

Dosage = Intensity (x) Time in seconds

Safety Warning Symbol

Important Safety Information: Avoid direct exposure or strongly reflected UV-C light to eyes or skin. Prolonged exposure can cause burns and  temporary loss of vision or blindness, but does NOT cause skin cancer or cataracts.

 

The Journal of Infectious Diseases CoverFor a collegiate level reference into further study in determining the infectious behavior of microorganisms, we direct you to the well-respected The Journal of Infectious Diseases published by Oxford University Press. These publications are focused on the academic community, however they are very insightful for the lay-person. They offer a breadth of publications spanning from Social Sciences, Medicine & Health, Science & Mathematics, Law, and Arts & Humanities.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases is an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

The Journals are typically on a Pay Per View Basis, however, many of the article abstracts can be downloaded at no cost.
Published continuously since 1904, you can view An Archive of all Online Content of the Infectious Diseases Journals.

Bacteria

 Effected Micro-organism Type  UV-C Dosage @ 99% Kill Factor (uWSec/cm2)*
Agrobacterium tumefaciens 8,500
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax vegatative) 8,700
Bacillus anthracis Spores (anthrax spores) 46,200 (approximate)
Bacillus megaterium (vegatative) (used as an industrial organism) 2,500
Bacillus paratyphosus 6,100
Bacillus subtills (vegatative) (used on crops as a fungicide) 11,000
Clostridium Tetani 22,000
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (pathogenic causing diphtheria) 6,500
Escherichia coli (E. coli) 7,000
Fecal Coliform 6,600
Legionella bozemanii 3,500
Legionella dumoffil 5,500
Legionella longbeachae 2,900
Legionella micdadel 3,100
Legionella pneumophilla (legionaiers disease) 3,800
Leptospira intrrogans (Infectious Jaundice) 6,000
Micrococcus Candidus 12,300
Mycobaterium tuberculosis 10,000
Neisseria catarrhalls 8,500
Proteus vulgaris 6,600
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (environmental strain) 10,500
Pseudomonas seruginosa (laboratory strain) 3,900
Rhodospirllum rubrum 6,200
Salmonella enteritidis 7,800
Salmonella paratyphi (enteric fever) 6,100
Salmonella typhimunum 15,200
Salmonella typhosa (typhoid fever) 6,000
Sarcina Lutea 26,400
Seratia marcescens 6,200
Shigella dysenterai (dysentery) 4,200
Shigella Flexneri (dysentery) 3,400
Shigella sonnell 7,000
Staphylococcus aureus 7,000
Staphylococcus epidermidis 5,800
Streptococcus faecalls 10,000
Streptococcus hemolyicus 5,500
Streptococcus lactis 8,800
Vibrio comma (Cholera) 6,500
Vibrio cholerae 6,500
Viridans streptococci 3,800

Viruses

Adeno Virus Type III 4,500
Bacteriophage (a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium) 6,600
Coxsackie A (is a Hand, foot and mouth disease (unrelated to hoof and mouth disease) 6,300
Infectious Hepatitus (Hepatitis A) 8,000
Influenza (commonly called the flu, is not the same as the stomach "flu") 6,500
Rotavirus (a contagious virus - is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children) 24,000
Tobacco mosaic (TMV) (infects plants, especially tobacco) 440,000

Protozoa

Blue-green algae 420.000
Chlorella Vulgaris (algae) 22,500
E. hystolytica 84,000
Giardia lamblia (cysts) 100,000
Nematode Eggs 92,000
Paramecium 200,000

Molds

Aspergillius flavus 99,000
Aspergillius glaucus 88,000
Aspergillius niger 330,000
Mucor racemosus A 35,200
Mucor racemosus B 35,200
Oospora lactis 11,000
Penicillium expansum 22,000
Penicillium roqueforti 26,000
Penicillium digitatum 88,000
Rhizopus nigricans (Cheese mold) 220,000

Yeast

Baker's yeast 8,800
Brewer's yeast 6,600
Common yeast cake 13,200
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 13,200
Saccharomyces ellipsoideus 13,200
Saccharomyces spores 17,600

*Approximate & nominal Ultraviolet dosage (µWSec/cm2) necessary to inactivate (kill) greater than 99% of specific microorganism - Various information resources may report different inactivation (kill-factor) dosages.

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